Free Online certificate course by World Intellectual Property Rights Organization (WIPO)

The DL101PCT course provides an introduction and general overview of the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), an international system that facilitates the acquisition of patents on a global scale.

The course was developed by WIPO specialists on the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), using the pedagogical and distance learning methodology of the WIPO Academy. Self-assessment tools are strategically placed throughout the course to measure your understanding and progress. In addition to the course material, links to specific reference documents are provided, such as legal texts and other official WIPO documents.

The content and methodology of all “General Primer” courses are structured to complement self-directed learning.  As such, participants are able to review course material at their own pace.


The DL101PCT course is comprised of fourteen modules:

  • Module 1: What is the PCT?
  • Module 2: Why Use the PCT?
  • Module 3: Preparing the PCT Application
  • Module 4: Filing the PCT Application
  • Module 5: PCT Electronic Services
  • Module 6: Patent Agents and Common Representatives
  • Module 7: International Search Report and Written Opinion of the ISA
  • Module 8: International Publication
  • Module 9: International Preliminary Examination
  • Module 10: Entry into the National Phase
  • Module 11: Special International Phase Procedures
  • Module 12: Procedures for Inventions in the Field of Biotechnology
  • Module 13: Access by Third Parties to the File of a PCT Application
  • Module 14: PCT Outlook

Final Exam and Certificate

This course is entirely self-study. An electronic certificate may be generated upon successful completion of the course quizzes.


This course is open to any individual wishing to obtain a general understanding of the PCT system.


Fully Funded BBC Legal Trainee Scheme 2019 at UK.

About :-

(Fully Funded BBC Legal Trainee Scheme 2019 at UK)

BBC is looking for four LPC graduates who can start work with us in September 2019. Successful candidates will have the opportunity to work as part of the BBC’s extended legal team for two years of excellent training and unique work experience.  It is an opportunity to be part of the team that provides the essential professional legal services which enable the BBC to enrich people’s lives with programmes and services that inform, educate and entertain.

Applicants need to be able to demonstrate knowledge of and commitment to the BBC and an understanding of the many areas of law that we deal with on an everyday basis. This includes not only commercial law, litigation, intellectual property, data protection, employment, fair trade and competition, but supporting all the varied needs of one of the creative sector’s biggest employers.

This competitive scheme attracts bright commercially-aware aspiring lawyers from all backgrounds who want to develop their legal career in-house and work in a fast paced and exciting environment which will give them an opportunity to be involved in a wide range of quality legal work from day one. They will get the chance to work with extremely talented lawyers and business colleagues across the BBC and to build their legal career as part of a very large and supportive in-house team.


  • A 24 month fixed-term contract paying circa £28k in the first year and rising to £32K in the second year (including London weighting) and leading to qualification with the SRA as a solicitor.
  • There will be three six-month rotations in Intellectual Property, BBC Worldwide, Rights and Business Affairs plus one seat in private practice, all based in London.
  • Professional Skills Course provided externally but sponsored by the BBC.


  • Applicants must normally have a 2:1 degree, but BBC will consider any extenuating circumstances.
  • If you are not taking a law degree, you must have or intend to have passed the Graduate Diploma in Law (GDL) prior to starting the contract.
  • All applicants will need to have passed the Legal Practice Course (LPC) before they start work with us as trainee solicitors in September 2019.
  • BBC regret that BBC is unable to fund either the GDL or the LPC.
  • The BBC is committed to becoming a culturally diverse workforce and to recruiting candidates from backgrounds which are currently under-represented in the legal profession. If you have a disability the BBC Access Unit will help you with any adjustments necessary for your assessment and for when you start on the scheme.

 Official Link- (For more information) .

Deadline: 28th July 2017

Free Online Course: University of Pennsylvania course on Understanding Classroom Interaction

The University of Pennsylvania is offering free online course on Understanding Classroom Interaction. This course is open for 3rd or 4th Year undergraduate students or graduate students who are student teaching, tutoring, or practicing teachers.

In this five-week course, students will learn about, critique, and practice methods for analyzing interaction in classrooms, developing tools to build more engaged, effective, and equitable classroom communication. This course will start on September 19, 2017.

Course At A Glance 

Length: 5 weeks
Effort: 2-3 hours pw
Subject: Education & Teacher Training
Institution: University of Pennsylvania and edx
Languages: English
Price: Free
Certificate Available: Yes, Add a Verified Certificate for $49
Session: Course Starts on September 19, 2017

Providers’ Details

The University of Pennsylvania is an Ivy League institution with 12 undergraduate, graduate and professional schools in Philadelphia, serving a diverse community of more than 20,000 students from around the world.

About This Course

Have you ever wondered why some classroom discussions are lively and engaging and others more like painful interrogations? Why some students always have an answer ready, but others never participate? Why everybody (or nobody) laughs at a teacher’s jokes? What role multiple languages should play in classroom talk?

Why Take This Course?

Each lesson introduces fundamental concepts and techniques of classroom discourse analysis, developing an analytic toolkit and promoting critical reflection on pedagogical practices over five weeks.

Learning Outcomes

You’ll explore student engagement strategies including how to identify and analyze:

  • Turn-taking patterns and their function
  • Question types and their effects on classroom talk
  • The role of intonation, gesture and other subtle cues on interaction
  • Types and functions of classroom storytelling
  • Types of class participation and their effects


Betsy R. Rymes

Betsy is Professor of Educational Linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Education. She received her Masters degree in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Language (TESOL) from UCLA in 1994 and her PhD in Applied Linguistics from UCLA in 1997.


3rd or 4th Year Undergraduate Students or Graduate Students who are student teaching, tutoring, or practicing teachers.

How To Join This Course

  • Go to the course website link
  • Create an edX account to SignUp
  • Choose “Register Now” to get started.
  • EdX offers honor code certificates of achievement, verified certificates of achievement, and XSeries certificates of achievement. Currently, verified certificates are only available in some courses.
  • Once applicant sign up for a course and activate their account, click on the Log In button on the orghomepage and type in their email address and edX password. This will take them to the dashboard, with access to each of their active courses. (Before a course begins, it will be listed on their dashboard but will not yet have a “view course” option.)

Apply Now

For more details, click

University of Melbourne Master Degree and PhD Scholarship in Australia (Fully Funded)

​Are you planning in pursuing Master or Doctoral degree soon? This is a very good piece of information you should look into.
Where: University of Melbourne, Australia
Nationality: International students can apply
Award of the scholarship:
Annual living allowance

Tuition fee


BE an international student
Meet all the requirements for the admission of The University of Melbourne

Be able to attend full-time degree in the University

Have a success academic record

Deadline: 31 October 2017

Free Online Course on Introduction to International Criminal Law

About this course:

From the Nuremberg trial to the case against Saddam Hussein, from the prosecution of Al-Qaeda terrorists to the trial of Somali pirates – no area of law is as important to world peace and security as international criminal law. Taught by one of the world’s leading experts in the field, this course will educate students about the fundamentals of international criminal law and policy. We will explore the contours of international crimes such as genocide, war crimes, terrorism, and piracy. We will examine unique modes of international criminal liability and specialized defenses. And we will delve into the challenges of obtaining custody of the accused and maintaining control of the courtroom.

Course Format

This course is made up of eight content units. Each unit is based on an online reading assignment, a video lecture of about one hour in length, and one or more role play exercises to stimulate on-line discussion. The course also offers in-video enrichment quizzes (ungraded) for each unit, a ten question multiple choice midterm diagnostics exam (ungraded), and a ten question True/False Final Exam.

Created by:   Case Western Reserve University

For more details:

Free Online Course on International Law in Action: A Guide to the International Courts and Tribunals in The Hague

About this course: International Law in Action explains the functions of each international court and tribunal present in The Hague, and it looks at how these institutions address contemporary problems. On the basis of selected cases, and through interviews with judges and lawyers, you will explore the role of these courts and tribunals and their potential to contribute to global justice.

The first module of the course will investigate how judicial settlement is different from other more political forms of dispute settlement, such as negotiation and mediation. It offers a brief historical overview and introduces the judicial and arbitral bodies based in The Hague. In the remaining modules you will learn about the functions of these courts and tribunals, and some of the challenges and prospects that they face. Three cross-cutting themes tie together all of these modules: (i) The interaction between law and politics; (ii) The continuing role of State consent; and (iii) The ability of international courts and tribunals to protect the public interest and global values.

This course offers you an opportunity to gain a better insight into the functions and features of the courts and tribunals present in The Hague. You will gain a familiarity with each court or tribunal. You will develop realistic expectations of their capacity to address contemporary problems and an awareness of their limitations. You will also be able to discuss some of their most prominent cases.

If you would like to have a better understanding of international law in action in The Hague, this is definitely the course for you!

This course is free to join and to participate in. There is the possibility to get a verified certificate for the course, which is a paid option. If you want a certificate, but are unable to pay for it, you can request financial aid via Coursera.

Who is this class for: This course is free, and will remain free for participants. You can purchase a certificate.

Created by:   Universiteit Leiden

For more details:

Free Online Course on International Law In Action: Investigating and Prosecuting International Crimes

About this course: ‘Investigating and Prosecuting International Crimes’ is the second course in Leiden University’s new series on International Law in Action. The first course covered international courts and tribunals in The Hague in general. This second course provides an insider perspective into the work of international criminal courts and tribunals. You will learn about the investigation and prosecution of international crimes in The Hague.

Atrocities produce unspeakable forms of violence. We will explore whether and how international criminal justice contribute to what UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon called the ‘age of accountability’. The theory is, those who commit the worst of human crimes, are held accountable, whether they are rank-and-file foot soldiers or military commanders, whether they are lowly civil servants following orders or top political leaders. We will test how this can be done and if this is realistic.

During this course, you will be offered a look into the ‘kitchen’ of the Hague international criminal courts and tribunals. You will learn how international criminal justice functions, who the actors are, what outcomes it produces, and how it can be improved.

If you want to gain a better understanding of international criminal cases, like the Lubanga case, the ICC’s first ever trial, and the legal legacy of UN international criminal tribunals, then this course is definitely for you!

This course is free to join and to participate in. There is the possibility to get a verified certificate for the course, which is a paid option. If you want a certificate, but are unable to pay for it, you can request financial aid via Coursera.

Who is this class for: This course is free, and will remain free for participants. You can purchase a certificate.

Created by:   Universiteit Leiden

For more details:

Online Course on European Business Law: Understanding the Fundamentals

About this course: The European Union is one of the world’s largest and most important economies. This five week course is the first in a series of three that will provide students with an insight into European Business Law. The series ranges from considering the basic structures and principles of the European Union to focusing on various specialized areas of law. Each course will give the students an understanding of the laws and policies that regulate the internal market of European Union, as well as relevant case law and useful inputs from leading practitioners in the field.

At the end of this course series, you will have a basic understanding of how to:

• Navigate EU legal sources

• Understand relevant laws and regulations governing the internal European Union market • Apply the fundamental principles of EU law within the EU legal framework

• Utilize the rules of freedom of movement and their impacts on trade in the EU

• Relate EU law with national laws

• Understand EU policies and their influence on foreign trade and investment

About the Series

In the first course, Understanding the Fundamentals, we will examine the core structures and principles of the European Union as well as the main sources of law. In the second course, Doing business in Europe, we will focus on the main laws that regulate various aspects of establishing and running a business within the European Union. In the final course, Competing in Europe, we will go into more depth about how to compete on the internal market and protect your brand, product or invention.

To keep up to speed on the course series, visit our Facebook page at:


Who is this class for: This course is useful to persons both inside and outside the European Union, whether they are students, professionals, or simply interested in the European Union and European Business Law. Prior knowledge of law and the European Union is an advantage, but not a prerequisite. We have added an introduction module in the first course providing students with an overview of the history, institutions and legal method of the European Union.

For more details:

Free Certificate Course on Introduction to Environmental Law and Policy

Environmental law may be the one institution standing between us and planetary exhaustion. It is also an institution that needs to be reconciled with human liberty and economic aspirations. This course considers these issues and provides a tour though existing legal regimes governing pollution, water law, endangered species, toxic substances, environmental impact analyses, and environmental risk.

for enrolling visit ;


Free Certificate course on International Criminal Law (enroll now)

About this course: — About the Course —

From the Nuremberg trial to the case against Saddam Hussein, from the prosecution of Al-Qaeda terrorists to the trial of Somali pirates – no area of law is as important to world peace and security as international criminal law. Taught by one of the world’s leading experts in the field, this course will educate students about the fundamentals of international criminal law and policy. We will explore the contours of international crimes such as genocide, war crimes, terrorism, and piracy.

We will examine unique modes of international criminal liability and specialized defenses. And we will delve into the challenges of obtaining custody of the accused and maintaining control of the courtroom. —

Course Syllabus — This course comprises eight units (or “modules”).

Each will include an assigned reading, typically an article or book chapter, as well as a simulation designed to bring the readings to life. I will also offer video lectures on each of the topics, accompanied by slides. In addition, there will be online role-play exercises and debates, enabling the students to share their own insights.

The order of class sessions will be:

(1) History: From Nuremberg to The Hague

(2) International Crimes Part 1: War Crimes, Genocide, Crimes against Humanity, and Torture

(3) International Crimes Part 2: Terrorism and Piracy

(4) Special modes of liability: command responsibility, co-perpetration, and incitement

(5) Special defenses: insanity, obedience to orders, duress, and head of state immunity

(6) Gaining custody of the accused: extradition, luring, abduction, and targeted killing

(7) Pre-Trial Issues: plea bargaining, self-representation, and exclusion of torture evidence

(8) Maintaining control of the courtroom — Recommended Background — You don’t have to be a lawyer and there are no prerequisites for this course. However, the course will be conducted at the level expected of advanced undergraduate students. Therefore, for all participants, reading and writing comfortably in English at the undergraduate college level is desirable.

for enrolling visit;

10 Entirely FREE Human Rights Courses

Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Comparing Theory and Practice Click on the hyperlink 
This course is free and is taught by Universiteit Leiden, in the Netherlands. It investigates terrorism as being one of the defining factors of our age, but delves into the ideas of peace, security and stability. What do these mean? What is the nature of the threat? The course will be taught in three parts. The first part will focus on the essence of terrorism, the second part will provide an overview of the state of the art in terrorism studies. It will talk about how it has grown exponentially since 9/11 and what academia thinks of it and what people are doing about it. Finally, part three will look into the implications and possibilities for policy making. The course will include 30 hours of videos, quizzes and projects, has available subtitles in English, Spanish, Serbian and French. The course will commence May 2 and will go through July 3.

Human Rights: The Right to Freedom of Expression Click on the hyperlink 
Amnesty International partnered with edX, one of the largest MOOC plattforms, to provide a course that will expand knowledge of Freedom of Expression as a human right, increase the ability to critically analyze information related to Freedom of Expression, and sharpen skills and confidence to take action to defend Freedom of Expression. This course is an introductory level course and recommends that students spend three to five hours a week on reading materials, watching videos and completing assignments. The course is accompanied by a discussion forum where students can put forward their questions and receive feedback. Amnesty International provides great material and case studies from China to the United States. Completing this course can be a great asset for students who are interested in working in the human rights field.

Workers’ Rights in a Global Economy Click on the hyperlink 
This iversity course started on 3 March 2016 is dealing with Worker’s Rights and their interelatedness to poverty reduction, equality and human rights. After finishing the course participants will have a solid understanding of the history of Worker’s Rights, the institutional framework guiding the International Labour Organization and about the nature of the right to Freedom of Association. The course is structured in 7 chapters with a multiple choice exam at the end. It features renowned facilitators and contributors from the ILO, OCED and various global universities including Berlin School of Economics and Law, Penn State University (USA) and the Global Labour University (Germany). Like all courses presented in this list auditing this online course is entirely for free, while a paid certification is available for 49 Euros.

Global Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) Click on the hyperlink 
This is another free course, taught by Lund University, which focuses on questions related to sexuality and reproduction and their interrelatedness to human rights.  The course will tackle the main themes relating to SRHR and global policies currently in place. It will also discuss STIs, HIV/AIDS, violence and coercion in sexual and reproductive contexts, as well as human rights and sexual identity. Completion of this course will result in a certificate and the course is taught in English. It will begin April 27 and end June 14.

International Women’s Health & Human Rights Click on the hyperlink 
Altough this course already started on 21 January it is not too late to join in and participate. The free online course provides students with fundamental knowledge about women’s health and human rights, elaborates on sexual and reproductive rights while taking economic, social, political factors into consideration. One of the goals of the course is to create a global community of engaged students interested in Women’s Health and its interrelatednes to human rights.

International Human Rights Click on the hyperlink 
This course about international human rights is brought to you by the Université Catholique de Louvain, but is taught in English. It will discuss the constant dialogue in international and domestic courts about human rights, as well as the cultural and legal boundaries within this frame. Focusing mainly on the law aspect of international human rights, you will learn how to follow the development on human rights and will be able to take part in the discussion. This course will commence June 15 and is self-paced.

Introduction to Human Rights Click on the hyperlink 

This free open online course is available on udemy and facilitated by lawyer and human rights professor José Zalaquett. The course provides students with a brief introduction about international human rights and highlights a few more specific issues such as the rights of the child, women’s rights, Migration and Human Rights, Environment and Human Rights etc. The course contains of 33 lectures and 6 hours of videos. The course is entirely held in English and is also available on IOS and Android.

International Law in Action: A Guide to the International Courts and Tribunals in The Hague Click on the hyperlink 
This course hosted by Coursera and facilitated by the University of Leiden started on 14 March 2016. It offers students the opportunity to acquire a better understanding of the functions and features of the courts and tribunals present in The Hague. Students will gain insights about the mandate and functionality of the International Criminal Court (ICJ) and its potential to contribute to global justice. The course, which focuses primarily on aspects of International Law, has a full duration of 5 weeks with one final exam at the end for those who want to obtain a paid certificate.

Essentials of Nonprofit Strategy Click on the hyperlink 
While this course is not a human rights course per se it can empower future leaders to achieve successes with their projects and ideas. The course, which starts on 15 March claims to, help students to “develop successful strategies to achieve” organizational goals “and make strides towards meaningful impact.” The course is facilitated by Paul Brest (Stanford Law School), who is the former President of Hewlett Foundation. To receive a Statement of Accomplishment, you will need to complete 4 out of the 6 weekly assignments.

Storytelling for Change    Click on the hyperlink 
Another course that can be highly useful to human rights defenders is “Storytelling for Change” hosted by +Acumen and starting on June 21. The participants of this course will learn “how to tell stories and use a specific set of storytelling skills” so that they “connect with the hearts and minds” of their audience. The course requires a committment of 3-4 hours per week and finished on 17 August 2016.

 information courtesy:

Free Online Course on International Human Rights

About this course

Human rights develop through the constant dialogue between international human rights bodies and domestic courts, in a search that crosses geographical, cultural and legal boundaries. The result is a unique human rights grammar, which this course shall discuss and question, examining the sources of human rights, the rights of individuals and the duties of States, and the mechanisms of protection. We shall rely extensively on comparative material from different jurisdictions, to study a wide range of topics including, for instance, religious freedom in multicultural societies, human rights in employment relationships, economic and social rights in development, or human rights in the context of the fight against terrorism.

What you’ll learn

  • A solid understanding of the key controversies surrounding the development of international human rights law
  • How to follow the developments of human rights law using the conceptual tools you’ve acquired
  • How to take part in the questions raised by the enforcement of international human rights law

for more details visit :!!

Harvard University free online course on Islam Through Its Scriptures

About this course

How can you improve your understanding of Islam and its most important holy text, the Quran? How can you make sense of a tradition and a text that have been interpreted in different ways across vast geographical spaces for nearly a millennium and a half?

Using a multimedia and student-centered approach, this religion course provides tools and perspectives for understanding the role of the Quran in the Islamic tradition. Learners will develop the skills and context to read the text themselves, while also being introduced to some of the issues classical and contemporary interpreters have addressed. This approach enables learners to explore the influence of the Quran on diverse Muslim understandings of Islam.

No previous knowledge of Islam or Religious Studies is required.

This course is part of the World Religions Through Their Scriptures XSeries Program.

What you’ll learn

  • An introduction to the place of the Quran in Muslim cultures
  • Major themes of the Quran
  • The historical and cultural contexts of the Quran
  • Interpretive skills that enable a more nuanced reading of the Quran
  • Diverse approaches Muslims have adopted to engaging with Quranic texts, including issues in contemporary interpretation

for more visit :!

Harvard Launches Free online courses on Religious Literacy: Traditions and Scriptures

About this course

The study of religion is the study of a rich and fascinating dimension of human experience that includes but goes well beyond beliefs and ritual practices. In this religion course, learners explore case studies about how religions are internally diverse, how they evolve and change through time, and how religions are embedded in all dimensions of human experience. We’ll explore these tenets through the lens of scripture and through themes such as gender and sexuality, art, violence and peace, science, and power and authority.

Join me and peers from around the world to embark on this journey to better understand religion in human affairs.

This is the first religion course in a series of World Scriptures courses from HarvardX:

See more about Religious Literacy: Traditions and Scriptures

What you’ll learn

  • Tools for how to interpret the roles religions play in contemporary and historic contexts;
  • How religions are internally diverse
  • How religions evolve and change
  • How religions are embedded in all human cultures
  • The strengths and limitations of learning about religions through their scriptures.

for more visit :

for other such courses :

Knowledge Steez Free Online Course on Corporate Social Responsibility

About the Course:  Knowledge Steez is offering a certificate course on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The purpose of this Certificate Course is to provide students, Lawyers, NGOs, International Organizations and Governments ,  an experience-based, integrative exposure to this emerging and dynamic field of business practice.   CSR certificate course is a first of its kind; it blends both legal and management dimensions of CSR.

Eligibility Criteria: Appearing Graduates/Graduates/ Post Graduates in any field/Corporates/NGO Professionals/ Government Employees

Selection procedure: Admissions open and will be on first come first serve basis. (30 Seats Only)

COURSE FEES : Free Course
Certificate : Free Online Certificate
Hardcopy Certificate : 500 INR only
REGISTRATION PROCESS:Step 1: Interested applicants are required to visit the page 2:   Please Message  your Name, Address, E-mail ID and Contact Number to the facebook page of knowledge steez

 After receiving the  message on our Facebook page our team will confirm the registration and provide you with a registration receipt and enrollment number.

Important Dates

Last Date for Enrollment : 10th  December  2015.·         Study Material dispatch soft copy: 20 th December.

·         Course Starts at: 22nd December 2015.

·         Exam Date: 1st week of February 2015.

·         Result Declaration 3 week of February 2015.

Free online course on “Workers’ Rights in a Global Economy”

Free course on Property and Liability : An Introduction to Law and Economics

About this Course
Think about the oldest and most familiar principles of American law, property and proportional liability, in a new and surprising way, and learn to apply economic reasoning to an especially important and interesting aspect of life.

Subtitles available in English

1. Property
Property is where law and economics meet, but it’s not a simple concept. Property is not an object or a relation between people and objects, but a set of rights, relations among people over who is to control each of the many uses to which objects can be put. Different people may control different uses of an object, that is, have different property rights over its various uses, at the same time, or control the same use of the object at different times. When new uses create disputes, the law must define new property rights and allocate them initially to resolve the dispute – someone must be deemed to have won the dispute and be given initial ownership of the new rights. But once the former disputants are allowed to trade these rights among themselves, surprising results follow.

2. Exchange and Efficiency
Voluntary exchange implies mutual benefit – when people trade property rights, it’s because they each believe that what they get from the trade will be more valuable to them than what they have to give up to get it. So if there are no obstacles to voluntary exchange, that is, if transaction costs are low, property rights will end up in the hands of the person who values them the most, a result economists call an efficient allocation of the rights. What happens when there are barriers that impede or prevent property rights from reaching their highest valuing owner through exchange? Can the law assign property rights to achieve efficient allocation in such cases? Should it try, or are there values other than efficient allocation the law might try to advance, along with or instead of efficient allocation, in assigning property rights?

Exchange involves both benefit and cost – traders take rights from others, imposing costs on them but creating benefit for themselves, but they must compensate the others for their costs by paying for the rights they’ve taken. External costs are imposed when one person takes another’s rights without paying for them, which leads to the taker taking more rights than efficient allocation would allow and leaves the victim uncompensated for the costs of losing the rights. The law’s response to this inefficiency and injustice is liability, forcing those who take rights without payment to compensate those whose rights they have taken for the costs they have borne. Thinking about how the law determines these liability prices, and how people might respond to them, reveals the underlying economic logic of liability.

4. Crime and Punishment
Some externalities involve only a few uncompensated losers of rights whose costs are easily reckoned in monetary terms, so that forcing the taker to pay exactly these costs to the victims ensures both that victims will be fairly compensated and that takers will take rights only where they value the rights more than the losers do. The law calls these externalities torts, and the same principle of liability pricing extends to crimes, in which, with the same unlawful act, someone simultaneously takes the rights of many people who suffer moral costs that can’t be satisfactorily measured by money. As with torts, some crimes may be efficient reallocations of rights, and the logic of liability shows that proportional punishment can, ideally, discover which crimes are or are not efficient and force all takers to compensate their victims in full for what they take.

5. Property, Utility and Technology
The concept of property is developed in two new directions. One concerns the problem of eminent domain and evokes the ancient conflict between individual rights and collective needs – in what circumstances, and to what extent, should private property be protected against uncompensated taking by government? How do the different theories of property considered earlier each answer this question? The other asks how voluntary exchange can be organized when technology makes it easy for people to take others’ property rights without compensation. If existing rights are insufficient to prevent these takings from occurring on a large enough scale to make voluntary exchange impossible, new kinds of property rights are needed to encourage efficient levels of production and exchange. This is illustrated by the problem of intellectual goods and the new forms of property that have evolved over centuries to make exchange in ideas possible.

6. Criminal Procedure
Criminal liability means that crimes have prices, and how these prices are exacted in practice from people who take rights without compensation is the problem of criminal procedure. How do judges know who is guilty, and what prices guilty people should be made to pay for their crimes? Around the world, two major systems of adjudicating guilt and punishment, the adversarial and the inquisitorial, have evolved over centuries to answer these questions in individual cases, with very different procedures to assess guilt and punishment that express different commitments to truth and fairness. All these procedures are expensive, and governments everywhere must confront the problem of processing large caseloads with limited resources. This has led the inquisitorial systems of Europe and the adversarial systems of England and the United States to new procedures of adjudication that may be reducing the differences between them.

for more details visit:

Breaking Stereotype Photography Competition

Breaking Stereotype Photography Competition

ABOUT :  The aim of this competition is to create awareness on gender issues. Hence, the photographs submitted should portray the same(women rights , Gender Discrimination etc).

Reference can be taken from:

Rules & terms of the competition

  1. The Competition is open to the participants who reside in India only.
  2. The participants must be aged between 18 years to 25 years.
  3. The participants can make submissions on the above mentioned theme.
  • Multiple entries are not allowed.
  • There is no restriction on the minimum and the maximum resolution size of the images.
  • One is permitted to submit previously published entry to this competition, provided that the photographer retains his or, her exclusive rights on the image.


  1. Submit picture before 25, February 2015
  2. After the final call for photographs is over, the pictures will we uploaded on Facebook.
  3. Top 15 people fetching the maximum number of likes will reach second stage.
  4. Second stage will be the selection by Judges.
  5. The photographs that manage to score the maximum will be given cash price.
  6. The top 10 people fetching the maximum number of likes will be offered free online certificate course from Indian Case Laws. Person declared first will be awarded WITH Cash Prize of 1000 INR + Free Certificate course by Indian Case Laws.
  7. Entries will be judged on creativity, originality, composition, technical excellence, artistic merit and visual impact. The judges will be appointed by The Knowledge Steez


  • The organizers do not bear any responsibility for copyright violations or infringement of intellectual property carried out by the participants.
  • The photographs hence submitted will become the exclusive property of The Knowledge Steez. The participants will subsequently lose all their rights on the image.
  • Participants found using software to generate fake likes will be disqualified.

Important Dates:

Submission before: 25, February 2015

Voting will start on: 26, February 2015

Voting Ends on : 6, March 2015

Results will be declared on 8, March 2015 (International Women’s Day )

(All entries will be awarded with free membership of International Research Help Group for 2015. )

mail your submission at